Stop the abuse of antibiotics

Let's start with a brief historical review: penicillin was the first known antibiotic to be discovered by Nobel laureate Alexander Fleming in 1928. Since it was a huge success, it was produced in time for the second World War. Penicillin now contains over 100 commonly prescribed antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infections. These drugs are prescribed to kill and inhibit the future growth of bacteria.

There has been a lot of talk about antibiotics lately after Lancet Infectious Diseases announced the spread of a new drug-resistant super bug from South Asia. News agencies gradually announced that the era of antibiotics is coming to an end. Sarah Boseley, editor and columnist for The Guardian, said: "The post-antibiotic apocalypse is in sight." However, there is a contrary opinion that the news about the uselessness of antibiotics is exaggerated. Don't be in a hurry to deny what you have, unless you can't find a suitable replacement. Do not hurry to promote this world without antibiotics.

The effectiveness of antibiotics depends on how people use them. Unfortunately, even some healthcare providers have forgotten that antibiotics are not an effective treatment for fighting viruses or fungal infections. Antibiotics should only be taken as prescribed for bacterial infections. Excessive use of antibiotics creates drug resistance. When doctors started prescribing them for almost all diseases, the bacteria responded and developed to better resist them. However, it is up to people to improve the existing situation, and here are the main recommendations:

Never keep unused antibiotics for later use and do not take antibiotics that have been prescribed for someone else. The abuse of antibiotics has serious consequences.

Remember: antibiotics don't help against non-bacterial infections like the common cold or flu (both caused by viruses).

If a patient has a bacterial infection, his doctor usually recommends taking all prescribed antibiotics, even if the patient feels better within a few days. This is to ensure that as many bacteria as possible are killed for the first time. If only a few fractions of the bacteria are killed (enough to make the patient feel better), the patient may be able to spread the surviving bacteria, which are more robust than usual. This type of practice can lead to a slow build-up of antibiotic resistance within a community. Antibiotic treatment must therefore be stopped.

In 2006, the European Union banned the routine use of antibiotics in animal feed, as this has been shown to affect human drug resistance. United recommends the same for the United States for the same reason. Hopefully the decision will take effect soon.

Frequent hand washing by medical personnel and people in general is an essential measure.

Quickly diagnose new MRSA infections. With the exception of the strongest (and most expensive) antibiotics, MRSA infections are extremely difficult to treat in patients. Upon detection of MRSA infection, the patient must be isolated immediately so that he does not come into contact with other sensitive patients. To effectively isolate the infected patient, the hospital only needs an empty bed in a private room. Unfortunately, this practice is common in some hospitals in some parts of the world, but not nearly everywhere.

Use antibiotics wisely, as nothing better has been discovered to replace them.

Discover the different causes of urinary stones in dogs

There are many different health problems that can arise in dogs, and just like humans, these health problems need to be addressed immediately. Dogs suffering from various diseases require special and immediate attention. One of the most common health problems in dogs is a urinary tract infection. Urinary tract infection is known to be caused by many different factors. One of the main causes of a urinary tract infection is the urinary stone in dogs, which is also known as bladder stones in dogs. Dog.

Urinary stones in dogs can be considered a condition in which crystals form in a certain part of the dog's urinary tract or which can affect the entire urinary tract. Bladder stones in dogs are of different types and depend on their chemical composition. One type of bladder stones in dogs is struvite. These stones consist of magnesium phosphate and ammonium. The other types of stones consist of ammonium urate, cystine, calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate or other compounds, while some stones consist of a combination of these different chemicals.

Dogs with urinary stones can have different signs and symptoms. It is important to know these signs and symptoms, but it is also important to understand the different causes of these bladder stones in dogs. There are many different factors that are known to contribute to the development of urinary stones in dogs. These factors include the pH value of the urine, the concentration of stone components in the urine, the presence of bacterial infections and the genetic disposition. With a higher concentration of the constituent parts of the stones, there is a higher risk of stone formation.

Genetic predisposition is said to contribute to the development of urinary stones in dogs, as the physiology of certain genetically controlled animals is known to cause them to produce higher amounts of substances that trigger crystal formation. These crystals are then excreted from the dog's body or even formed in the urine. Urine pH is also believed to cause bladder stones in dogs because the alkalinity or acidity of urine greatly affects the dissolution or formation of stones from the stone's constituents in the urinary system. Stones like struvite stones tend to form in alkaline urine, while other types of stones like calcium oxalate stones tend to form in acid urine.

Bacterial infections also play an important role in the formation of urinary stones in dogs. Bacterial infections in the bladder, also known as cystitis, are known to be a major cause of struvite formation, as these bacterial infections may increase urinary alkalinity and the by-products of bacterial metabolism may improve the formation of crystals.